Want to Know More About Retirement Systems in Other Nations?

Please click below to read about the three tiers of the retirement system in the following countries, as well updates on current issues related to strengthening retirement security for private sector workers.

Australia | Brazil | Canada | Chile | Denmark | Finland | Ireland | Japan | New Zealand | Poland | Singapore | Switzerland | The Netherlands | United Kingdom

If you would like to review country specific details and information, click here.

         Reform implementation completed
         Reform implementation in progress
         Recent reform proposals
         Reform implementation progress and recent reform proposals/studies ongoing at the state level

Resources on International Systems


  • Investing in (and for) Our Future This paper examines defined contribution plan reforms including how to improve the accumulation and decumulation phases of retirement.
  • How We Can Save (for) Our Future This paper builds off the white paper “We’ll Live to 100 – How Can We Afford It?” by exploring options for expanding access and increasing retirement savings.
  • We’ll Live to 100 – How Can We Afford It? This paper addresses the challenges facing retirement systems, including the impact of aging societies, and quantifies the size of the savings shortfall. It provides recommendations for system design and actions for policy-makers to ensure we can adjust to societies in which living to 100 is commonplace and affordable for all.
  • Case Studies in Retirement System Reform is a companion report which presents 12 case studies on the approaches that governments, pension funds and companies have taken to address the challenges that their own retirement systems face. It highlights initiatives undertaken and lessons learned to guide those seeking future pension reforms.


Country Index for Research & Analysis Archives – provides country by country historical archive of policy reforms, research, data, and other key information.

International Updates – monthly newsletter update on key public and private pension reforms around the world.


  • OECD Pensions Outlook 2022 (purchase or subscription required)
    The OECD Pensions Outlook discusses how to introduce, develop, and strengthen asset-backed pension arrangements, the role that employers can play in their provision, and the implication of different fee structures on individuals saving for retirement and on providers. The 2022 edition focuses on describing best practices for developing mortality tables and providing policy guidance on how to design, implement and continue the operation of non-guaranteed lifetime retirement income arrangements.
  • Recommendation of the Council for the Good Design of Defined Contribution Pension Plans 2022
    Adopted by OECD Council in February 2022, some of the recommendations include; ensure total contributions are sufficiently high to achieve retirement income objectives, promote low-cost and cost-efficient retirement arrangements in both the accumulation and pay-out phases, and ensure that all individuals have access to appropriate and sustainable investment strategies and a well-designed default, where applicable.
  • OECD Pensions at a Glance 2021
    This edition highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD countries over the past two years. Additionally, it analysis automatic adjustment mechanisms in pension systems in OECD countries, discusses the usefulness and limitations of these policy instruments, and suggests ways to improve them in order to enhance the capacity of pension systems to fulfill their objectives.
  • Annual Survey of Investment Regulation of Pension Funds and Other Pension Providers 2021
    This report describes the main quantitative investment regulations that pension funds are subject to in OECD and a selection of non-OECD countries. It finds that most countries had quantitative investment limits that some pension providers had to comply with.
  • Towards Improved Retirement Savings Outcomes for Women
    This paper focuses on helping governments find solutions for retirement savings arrangements that do not further exacerbate labor market-inequalities which drive the gender pension gap. The conducted study suggests policy options which consider why the gap exists and how it is perpetuated.
  • OECD Retirement Savings in the Time of COVID-19
    This paper assesses the impact of COVID-19 on retirement savings systems and the economic downturn. It also analyzes policy responses to the pandemic affecting retirement savings implemented by countries around the world. A final version of this paper is planned to be published in the OECD Pensions Outlook 2020.

Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index 2023

The 2023 Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index compares 47 retirement income, covering 64% of the world’s population systems to better understand the diversity of current pension policies across over 50 indicators. To measure each retirement system, the GPI uses the weighted average of the sub-indices of adequacy (40%), sustainability (35%), and integrity (25%). This year’s report highlighted the growing impact of AI on pension systems across the world and how it might be used to benefit them, despite the risks, uncertainties, and ethical concerns of AI.

Natixis Global Asset Management: 2022 Global Retirement Index

The Global Retirement Index (GRI) is a multi-dimensional index developed by Natixis Global Asset Management and CoreData Research to examine the factors that drive retirement security and to provide a comparison tool for best practices in retirement policy. The index provides a status report on 44 countries using 18 performance indicators, grouped into four thematic sub-indices, which have been calculated based on reliable data from a range of international organizations and academic sources. It considers the characteristics of the older demographic retiree group to assess and compare the level of retirement security in different countries around the world.