Want to Know More About Retirement Systems in Other Nations?

Please click below to read about the three tiers of the retirement system in the following countries, as well updates on current issues related to strengthening retirement security for private sector workers.

Australia | Brazil | Canada | Chile | Denmark | Finland | Ireland | Japan | New Zealand | Poland | Singapore | Switzerland | The Netherlands | United Kingdom

If you would like to review country specific details and information, click here.

         Reform implementation completed
         Reform implementation in progress
         Recent reform proposals
         Reform implementation progress and recent reform proposals/studies ongoing at the state level

Resources on International Systems


  • Investing in (and for) Our Future This paper examines defined contribution plan reforms including how to improve the accumulation and decumulation phases of retirement.
  • How We Can Save (for) Our Future This paper builds off the white paper “We’ll Live to 100 – How Can We Afford It?” by exploring options for expanding access and increasing retirement savings.
  • We’ll Live to 100 – How Can We Afford It? This paper addresses the challenges facing retirement systems, including the impact of aging societies, and quantifies the size of the savings shortfall. It provides recommendations for system design and actions for policy-makers to ensure we can adjust to societies in which living to 100 is commonplace and affordable for all.
  • Case Studies in Retirement System Reform is a companion report which presents 12 case studies on the approaches that governments, pension funds and companies have taken to address the challenges that their own retirement systems face. It highlights initiatives undertaken and lessons learned to guide those seeking future pension reforms.


  • OECD 2020 Pension Outlook
    This publication provides an analysis of pension policy issues in OECD countries. The policy issues include a look at public and private systems, defined benefit and defined contribution, pay-as-you-go and funded retirement systems. This edition also includes guidelines to help governments strengthen retirement savings resiliency against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • OECD Retirement Savings in the Time of COVID-19
    This paper assesses the impact of COVID-19 on retirement savings systems and the economic downturn. It also analyzes policy responses to the pandemic affecting retirement savings implemented by countries around the world. A final version of this paper is planned to be published in the OECD Pensions Outlook 2020.
  • OECD Pensions at a Glance 2019
    The OECD Pensions at Glance 2019 provides comparative indicators on the national pension systems of the 36 OECD countries, as well as for Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and South Africa. This edition reviews and analyzes the pension measures enacted or legislated in OECD countries between September 2019 and September 2019 and provides a comprehensive selection of pension policy indicators for all OECD and G20 countries.

Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index 2021

The 2021 Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index compares retirement income systems in 43 countries to better understand the diversity of current pension policies using more than 50 indicators. The nature of the problems faced by these nations, which range from a growth in aging populations due to rising life expectancies, government debt and uncertain economic conditions, transcend their respective historical, social, and political differences. The overall index value for each country represents the weighted average of the three sub-indices. The weightings used are:

  • 40 percent for the adequacy sub-index
  • 35 percent for the sustainability sub-index
  • 25 percent for the integrity sub-index

The different weightings are used to reflect the primary importance of the adequacy sub-index which represents the benefits that are currently being provided together with some important benefit design features. Consequently, the reforms necessary to address these challenges are similar, addressing issues such as changing pension ages, increasing labor force participation for older workers, and adjusting levels of funding for retirement.

Natixis Global Asset Management: 2021 Global Retirement Index

The Global Retirement Index (GRI) is a multi-dimensional index developed by Natixis Global Asset Management and CoreData Research to examine the factors that drive retirement security and to provide a comparison tool for best practices in retirement policy. The index provides a status report on 44 countries using 18 performance indicators, grouped into four thematic sub-indices, which have been calculated based on reliable data from a range of international organizations and academic sources. It considers the characteristics of the older demographic retiree group to assess and compare the level of retirement security in different countries around the world.